Solar Charge Controller (SCC) is essential in every solar installation. Although SCC is not the first thing to think about when discussing solar power, the charge controller ensures that the solar power system runs efficiently and safely over the next few years. Many variables change and affect how much power is produced, such as the level of sunlight, temperature, and battery charging status. The charge controller ensures your battery is supplied with a stable and optimal power level.

One of the SCC functions is to prevent excessive battery energy charging by limiting the amount and rate of charging to the battery. The charge controller of solar system also prevents battery drainage by turning off the system if the stored power drops below the 50 percent capacity and charging the battery at the correct voltage level. It helps keep the battery healthier and more durable.

Arduino’s Solar Charge Controller Types

Here are some types of SCC: 

  • Shunt Controller

Shunt Controller is the most basic type of SCC. It operates using a life/dead switch. When the battery voltage is low and must be filled, the Shunt Controller will enter the live position and allow the solar panel’s energy to the battery. When the battery is fully charged, the shunt controller will turn to a dead situation and block the energy flow. The current shunt controller is usually small and not recommended for solar panels used as a residential energy source. That’s because they are far less efficient than other options and are best used for specific purposes.

  • Series Regulator

The series regulator is more sophisticated than the Shunt Controller, even though their operation is almost the same. With a series regulator controller, most of them include several transistors or relays that allow several connection points. The series regulator is more suitable for large solar panels than the shunt controller because it does not require the same type of ventilation.

  • PWM Controller

PWM or Pulse Width Modulation allows multi-stage filling, including the mass stage, absorption, and flow, by continuing to regulate energy flow. The result is a more efficient system with better filling control. At the same time, PWM Controller is also more cost-effective, so it is recommended for use in housing.

  • Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Controller

The maximum Power Point Tracking Controller is one of the chargers controllers. It allows solar panels to use optimal solar power output voltage. MPPT Controller is also suitable for higher voltage than most other charge controllers.

By providing the best power output voltage, MPPT Controller can improve the performance of solar panels by up to 30%. As a newer choice on the market, MPPT Controller also has sophisticated features and programming options.

  • Diversion Load Controller

It is also known as a dump load controller. It works by directing the power back to the source of the Surya array after the battery is fully charged. Diversion Load Controller is not commonly used at home but is often used by wind load controllers.

Benefits of Solar Charge Controller PWM

  • Clean, calm, and easy to use

Solar panels do not consume fuel and do not issue waste. There is no moving part where there is no mechanical sound. Place the solar panel in the sun, and your voila can produce electricity.

  • Maximizing the Period of Battery Use

Solar panels produce pure DC electricity when exposed to sunlight. It is what your battery wants. By saturating your battery with this electron stable and slowly every day, you prevent the battery from a repeated release that will shorten the battery life. A well-designed solar battery charging system can double the battery life.

  • Electricity Independence

With the right-sized system and the appropriate component, you can put it in the desired place and be free from concerns in finding resources or running your generator. Whether on the mountain, beach or anywhere, the sun shines and declares your electricity independence.

  • Low maintenance

Because the solar panel does not consume fuel and does not have a moving part, there is no air filter, oil, or power to change. You only need to keep the panel surface clean.

  • Safe and reliable

Solar charger usually operates at 12 volts and less than 30 amp power. As a result, there is a slight possibility of electromotors or starting an electric fire. It is safe inherent if a system is installed using the right size and wire fuse.


Is a solar charge controller needed?

Solar charge controllers are an essential element to any solar electric panel system. At a most basic level, charge controllers prevent batteries from being overcharged and prevent the batteries from discharging through the solar panel array at night.

Which one is better MPPT or PWM?

The main difference between PWM and MPPT charge control devices is that the MPPT devices are more efficient. MPPT charge control devices have 30 % more efficient in charge efficiency according to PWM type. Panel voltage and battery voltage should be matched in PWM systems.